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Monday, September 17, 2018

နိုင္ငံျခား ရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈ က်မွာလား တက္မွာလား

နအဖလက္ထက္၂၀၁၀-၁ထက္ အခ်ိဳး ၄ဆ ႏွင့္ ၾကံ့ဖြတ္၂၀၁၅ -၁၆ ထက္အခ်ိဳး၂ဆေလာက္ကိုNLD ၂၀၁၇-၁၈ လက္ထက္မွာ FDI ေလ်ာ့နည္းက်ဆင္း

၂ဝ၁ဝ-၁၁ ဘ႑ာႏွစ္တြင္ နိုင္ငံျခား ရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈ အေမရိကန္ေဒၚလာ ၁၉ ဒသမ ဘီလ်ံေက်ာ္ ဝင္ေရာက္ခဲ့သည္။ ဦးသိန္းစိန္အစိုးရလက္ထက္ ၂ဝ၁၅-၁၆ ဘ႑ာႏွစ္တြင္ ဒသမ ဘီလ်ံေက်ာ္ ဝင္ေရာက္ခဲ့ၿပီး အင္န္အယ္လ္ဒီ အစိုးရလက္ထက္ ၂ဝ၁၇-၁၈ ဘ႑ာႏွစ္တြင္ ဒသမ ဘီလ်ံေက်ာ္သာ ဝင္ေရာက္ခဲ့သည္။ အစိုးရအေျပာင္းအလဲႏွစ္မ်ားတြင္  နိုင္ငံျခားရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈ ပိုမိုမ်ားျပားေလ့ရွိသည္ကို ေတြ႕ရသည္။


နိုင္ငံျခား ရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈ က်မွာလား တက္မွာလား
စက္တင္ဘာ၂၀၁၈
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၂ဝ၁၇၁၈ ဘ႑ာႏွစ္တြင္ နိုင္ငံျခားရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈ အမ်ားဆုံး ဝင္ေရာက္ခဲ့ေသာ က႑ ငါးခု။ ၂ဝ၁၇၁၈ ဘ႑ာႏွစ္စုစုေပါင္း နိုင္ငံျခားရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈ၏ ၃ဝ ဒသမ ရာခိုင္ႏႈန္းသည္ ကုန္ထုတ္လုပ္မႈက႑သို႔ ဝင္ေရာက္ခဲ့သည္။
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၂ဝ၁ဝ-၁၁ ဘ႑ာႏွစ္တြင္ နိုင္ငံျခား ရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈ အေမရိကန္ေဒၚလာ ၁၉ ဒသမ ဘီလ်ံေက်ာ္ ဝင္ေရာက္ခဲ့သည္။ ဦးသိန္းစိန္အစိုးရလက္ထက္ ၂ဝ၁၅-၁၆ ဘ႑ာႏွစ္တြင္ ဒသမ ဘီလ်ံေက်ာ္ ဝင္ေရာက္ခဲ့ၿပီး အင္န္အယ္လ္ဒီ အစိုးရလက္ထက္ ၂ဝ၁၇-၁၈ ဘ႑ာႏွစ္တြင္ ဒသမ ဘီလ်ံေက်ာ္သာ ဝင္ေရာက္ခဲ့သည္။ အစိုးရအေျပာင္းအလဲႏွစ္မ်ားတြင္  နိုင္ငံျခားရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈ ပိုမိုမ်ားျပားေလ့ရွိသည္ကို ေတြ႕ရသည္။

ေမွ်ာ္မွန္းထားသကဲ့သို႔ နိုင္ငံျခားရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈမ်ား ဝင္ေရာက္လာမႈမရွိျခင္းကို ရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈဆိုင္ရာ စာရင္းအခ်က္အလက္မ်ားက ေဖာ္ျပေနသည္။ တစ္ဖက္တြင္လည္း ရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈ ေလ်ာ့က်ေနျခင္းကို ကုစားရန္ ကုမၸဏီဥပေဒသစ္ႏွင့္ အသစ္ဖြင့္ေပးလိုက္ေသာ စီးပြားေရးက႑မ်ားသည္ ရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံသူမ်ားအတြက္ ဆြဲေဆာင္နိုင္အားတစ္ခုျဖစ္လာရန္ အစိုးရပိုင္းက ေမွ်ာ္လင့္ေနသည္။

၂ဝ၁၈ (ဧၿပီမွ စက္တင္ဘာအထိ) ၾကားကာလႏွစ္ ေျခာက္လတာအတြက္ နိုင္ငံျခားရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈပမာဏ အေမရိကန္ေဒၚလာ သုံးဘီလ်ံခန့္ ဝင္ေရာက္လာရန္ ျမန္မာနိုင္ငံ ရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈေကာ္မရွင္က ေမွ်ာ္မွန္းခဲ့သည္။ ငါးလတာ ကုန္ဆုံးခဲ့ၿပီးေနာက္တြင္မူ နိုင္ငံျခားရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈပမာဏသည္ အေမရိကန္ေဒၚလာ ဒသမ ဘီလ်ံသာ ဝင္ေရာက္လာေသးသည္။ သို႔ျဖစ္ရာ ယခု ေျခာက္လတာ ၾကားကာလ ဘ႑ာႏွစ္တြင္လည္း လ်ာထားခ်က္ ျပည့္မီရန္ ခက္ခဲမည္ျဖစ္သည္။

ျမန္မာနိုင္ငံ၏ နိုင္ငံျခားရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈသည္ ၂ဝ၁၅-၁၆ ဘ႑ာႏွစ္တြင္ အေမရိကန္ေဒၚလာ ဒသမ ဘီလ်ံ ဝင္ေရာက္ခဲ့ၿပီး ေနာက္ပိုင္းဘ႑ာႏွစ္မ်ားတြင္ နိုင္ငံျခားရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈမ်ား ေလ်ာ့က်လ်က္ရွိသည္။ ၂ဝ၁၆-၁၇ ဘ႑ာႏွစ္တြင္ အေမရိကန္ေဒၚလာ   ဒသမ ဘီလ်ံ၊ ၂ဝ၁၇-၁၈ ဘ႑ာႏွစ္တြင္ အေမရိကန္ေဒၚလာ ဒသမ ဘီလ်ံ ဝင္ေရာက္ခဲ့ၿပီး ဘ႑ာႏွစ္အလိုက္ နိုင္ငံျခားရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈေလ်ာ့က်ခဲ့သည္။

၂ဝ၁၇-၁၈ ဘ႑ာႏွစ္တြင္ ေရနံႏွင့္သဘာဝဓာတ္ေငြ႕၊ ေဆာက္လုပ္ေရးက႑တို႔တြင္ နိုင္ငံျခားရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈမ်ား ေလ်ာ့က်ျခင္းေၾကာင့္ ရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈပမာဏ ေလ်ာ့က်ခဲ့သည္ဟု ၾသဂုတ္လ၊ ေနာက္ဆုံးရက္သတၱပတ္အတြင္း ျပည္ေထာင္စုလႊတ္ေတာ္တြင္ ေဆြးေႏြးခဲ့ေသာ ျမန္မာနိုင္ငံရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈေကာ္မရွင္၏ ၂ဝ၁၇-၁၈ လုပ္ငန္းေဆာင္႐ြက္မႈအစီရင္ခံစာတြင္ ေဖာ္ျပခဲ့သည္။

လာမည့္ဘ႑ာႏွစ္သစ္ ၂ဝ၁၈၁၉ (၂ဝ၁၈ ခုႏွစ္ ေအာက္တိုဘာလမွ ၂ဝ၁၉ စက္တင္ဘာလအထိ) အတြက္ နိုင္ငံျခားရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈပမာဏ လ်ာထားခ်က္ အေမရိကန္ေဒၚလာ ဒသမ ဘီလ်ံ သတ္မွတ္ရန္ ရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈႏွင့္ ကုမၸဏီမ်ား ၫႊန္ၾကားမႈဦးစီးဌာနက ေဆာင္႐ြက္ေနသည္။ ၿပီးခဲ့သည့္ ၂ဝ၁၇၁၈ ဘ႑ာႏွစ္တြင္ နိုင္ငံျခားရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈလ်ာထားခ်က္ကို အေမရိကန္ေဒၚလာ ေျခာက္ဘီလ်ံခန့္ ေမွ်ာ္မွန္းခဲ့ျခင္းျဖစ္ရာ လာမည့္ဘ႑ာႏွစ္အတြက္ လ်ာထားခ်က္သည္ ယခင္ကထက္ ေလ်ာ့နည္း၍ ေမွ်ာ္မွန္းျခင္းလည္း ျဖစ္လာသည္။ 

''Global Investment Trend ကိုက က်ေနတယ္။ ကြၽန္ေတာ္တို႔ တစ္နိုင္ငံတည္းက်ေနတာေတာ့ မဟုတ္ဘူး''ဟု ရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈႏွင့္ ကုမၸဏီမ်ား ၫႊန္ၾကားမႈဦးစီးဌာန၊ ဒုတိယၫႊန္ၾကားေရးမႉးခ်ဳပ္ ဦးသန္းေအာင္ေက်ာ္က ေျပာသည္။

ထို႔ျပင္ ျမန္မာနိုင္ငံအေနျဖင့္ အေနာက္နိုင္ငံမ်ား၏ နိုင္ငံျခားရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈအေပၚ အားကိုး၍မရနိုင္ေသာ ထိုးႏွက္ခ်က္တစ္ရပ္မွာလည္း ရွိေနသည္။ ယင္းမွာ ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္တြင္ျဖစ္ပြားေနေသာ ပဋိပကၡအေရးသည္ အေနာက္နိုင္ငံမ်ားမွ ရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံသူမ်ား၏ စိတ္ဝင္စားမႈကို ေလ်ာ့နည္းေစသည့္အခ်က္အျဖစ္ အခိုင္အမာရွိေနဆဲ ျဖစ္သည္။ 

''အားလုံးသိတဲ့အတိုင္းပဲ နိုင္ငံတကာက ကြၽန္ေတာ္တို႔အေပၚ တခ်ိဳ႕ကိစၥေတြမွာ သတင္းအမွားေတြနဲ႕ အျမင္မွားေနတာေတြ ရွိေနတယ္''ဟု ဦးသန္းေအာင္ေက်ာ္က ေျပာသည္။ 

ၿပီးခဲ့သည့္ ၾသဂုတ္၊ ေနာက္ဆုံးရက္သတၱပတ္တြင္ က်င္းပခဲ့သည့္ ျပည္ေထာင္စုလႊတ္ေတာ္အစည္းအေဝးတြင္ ျမန္မာနိုင္ငံရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈေကာ္မရွင္၏ ၂ဝ၁၇၁၈ ခုႏွစ္ လုပ္ငန္းေဆာင္႐ြက္မႈအစီရင္ခံစာႏွင့္ ပတ္သက္၍ လႊတ္ေတာ္ကိုယ္စားလွယ္အခ်ိဳ႕က နိုင္ငံျခား ရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈေလ်ာ့နည္းေနျခင္းႏွင့္ နိုင္ငံျခားရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈ လုပ္ငန္းမ်ားေဆာင္႐ြက္ရန္ ဌာနဆိုင္ရာမ်ားေၾကာင့္ ၾကန့္ၾကာမႈရွိေနျခင္းတို႔အေပၚတြင္ ေမးခြန္းထုတ္မႈမ်ားရွိခဲ့သည္။ 

''နိုင္ငံေရး၊ လူ႕အခြင့္အေရး အေျခအေနေတြေၾကာင့္ အေနာက္နိုင္ငံေတြက ရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံဖို႔ တြန့္ဆုတ္ေနတယ္။ ဝန္ေလးေနၾကတယ္။ အေနာက္နိုင္ငံေတြက အစုရွယ္ယာရွင္ေတြပိုင္တဲ့ ကုမၸဏီထက္ မိသားစုပိုင္ကုမၸဏီေတြကို အဓိကပစ္မွတ္ထားၿပီး ဆြဲေဆာင္သင့္တယ္''ဟု ျမန္မာနိုင္ငံ ကုန္သည္/စက္မႈအသင္းခ်ဳပ္မွ ဒုတိယဥကၠဌ ေဒါက္တာေမာင္ေမာင္ေလးက ေျပာသည္။ 

အေရွ႕အာရွနိုင္ငံမ်ား၏ ရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈလားရာ

ျမန္မာနိုင္ငံ၏ နိုင္ငံျခား ရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈအမ်ားဆုံး ၁ဝ နိုင္ငံစာရင္းတြင္ တ႐ုတ္၊ စင္ကာပူ၊ ထိုင္း၊ ေဟာင္ေကာင္၊ ယူေက ကိုရီးယား၊ ဗီယက္နမ္၊ မေလးရွား၊ နယ္သာလန္ႏွင့္ ဂ်ပန္နိုင္ငံတို႔ပါဝင္သည္ဟု ရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈႏွင့္ ကုမၸဏီမ်ား ၫႊန္ၾကားမႈဦးစီးဌာန၏ အခ်က္အလက္မ်ားတြင္ ေဖာ္ျပထားသည္။ ထိပ္တန္း နိုင္ငံျခားရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈစာရင္းအရ အေရွ႕အာရွနိုင္ငံမ်ားသာ ႀကီးစိုးထားၿပီး ေရွ႕ေလွ်ာက္ျမန္မာအေနျဖင့္ နိုင္ငံျခားရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈႏွင့္ ပတ္သက္၍ အေနာက္နိုင္ငံမ်ားထက္ အာရွႏွင့္ အာဆီယံေဒသတြင္း နိုင္ငံမ်ားထံမွ ရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈမ်ားကိုသာ ဆက္လက္၍ အားကိုးရမည့္အေျခအေနျဖစ္သည္။

အထူးသျဖင့္ အိမ္နီးခ်င္းတ႐ုတ္နိုင္ငံ၏ ရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈမ်ား ပိုမိုဝင္ေရာက္လာမည့္ အေျခအေနလည္း ရွိေနသည္။ အေမရိကန္၊ တ႐ုတ္တို႔၏ ကုန္သြယ္ေရးစစ္ပြဲအသြင္ ျဖစ္ပြားေနေသာ ႏွစ္နိုင္ငံကုန္သြယ္ေရး ပိတ္ဆို႔မႈမ်ားေၾကာင့္ တ႐ုတ္နိုင္ငံမွ ကုန္ထုတ္လုပ္မႈလုပ္ငန္းမ်ားသည္ ျမန္မာသို႔ ေ႐ႊ႕ေျပာင္း၍ ထုတ္ကုန္၏ Country of  Origin  Myanmar ဟု ေဖာ္ျပ၍ ၄င္းတို႔၏ ထုတ္ကုန္မ်ားကို အေမရိကန္သို႔ ဆက္လက္တင္ပို႔ရန္ ရည္႐ြယ္မႈမ်ား ရွိေနသည္။ 

ကုန္သြယ္ေရးစစ္ပြဲေၾကာင့္ တ႐ုတ္ကုန္ထုတ္လုပ္ငန္း အခ်ိဳ႕သည္ အေျခခံအေဆာက္အအုံမ်ား ျပည့္စုံသည့္ သီလဝါအထူးစီးပြားေရးဇုန္သို႔ လာေရာက္ရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံရန္ စိတ္ဝင္စားမႈရွိၿပီး ရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈႏွင့္ ကုမၸဏီမ်ား ၫႊန္ၾကားမႈဦးစီးဌာန၊ ျမန္မာနိုင္ငံကုန္သည္/စက္မႈအသင္းခ်ဳပ္တို႔ႏွင့္ လာေရာက္ေဆြးေႏြးမႈမ်ားရွိသည္ဟု သိရသည္။

ကုန္သြယ္ေရးဂယက္ေၾကာင့္ တ႐ုတ္မွ ကုန္ထုတ္လုပ္ငန္းမ်ား ေ႐ႊ႕ေျပာင္းလာျခင္းႏွင့္ ရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံပိုင္းအရ အခြင့္အေရးသာနိုင္ျခင္းတို႔ ရွိနိုင္သည္ဟု စီးပြားေရးပညာရွင္ေဒါက္တာေဇာ္ဦးက သုံးသပ္သည္။

''ဒါက အက်ိဳးအျမတ္မ်ားလားဆိုတာ ေျပာဖို႔ေစာပါေသးတယ္။ ကြၽန္မတို႔နဲ႕ကိုက္တဲ့ ရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈကို ဆြဲယူနိုင္တယ္ဆိုရင္ေတာ့ အက်ိဳးအျမတ္ ရေကာင္းရနိုင္တယ္။ ေသေသခ်ာခ်ာ ဗ်ဴဟာေတြ ခိုင္ခိုင္မာမာရွိရင္ေတာ့ အက်ိဳးအျမတ္ ျဖစ္ေကာင္းျဖစ္နိုင္မယ္။ ဒီလိုမွမဟုတ္ရင္ ဒါက ေရတိုမွာေတာ့ ရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈေတြဝင္လာၿပီး ဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးမႈႏႈန္း တက္ေကာင္းတက္နိုင္တယ္။ ေရရွည္မွာေတာ့ Sustainable (စဥ္ဆက္မျပတ္) ျဖစ္ဖို႔ ခက္လိမ့္မယ္''ဟု ျမန္မာ့မဟာဗ်ဴဟာႏွင့္ မူဝါဒေလ့လာေရး အင္စတီက်ဳ (Institute for Strategy and Policy Myanmar) Lead Researcher ျဖစ္သူ ေဒၚခင္ခင္ေက်ာ္ႀကီးက သုံးသပ္သည္။

၂ဝ၁ဝ-၁၁ ဘ႑ာႏွစ္တြင္ နိုင္ငံျခား ရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈ အေမရိကန္ေဒၚလာ ၁၉ ဒသမ ဘီလ်ံေက်ာ္ ဝင္ေရာက္ခဲ့သည္။ ဦးသိန္းစိန္အစိုးရလက္ထက္ ၂ဝ၁၅-၁၆ ဘ႑ာႏွစ္တြင္ ဒသမ ဘီလ်ံေက်ာ္ ဝင္ေရာက္ခဲ့ၿပီး အင္န္အယ္လ္ဒီ အစိုးရလက္ထက္ ၂ဝ၁၇-၁၈ ဘ႑ာႏွစ္တြင္ ဒသမ ဘီလ်ံေက်ာ္သာ ဝင္ေရာက္ခဲ့သည္။ အစိုးရအေျပာင္းအလဲႏွစ္မ်ားတြင္  နိုင္ငံျခားရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈ ပိုမိုမ်ားျပားေလ့ရွိသည္ကို ေတြ႕ရသည္။

ဥပေဒသစ္ႏွင့္ ဖြင့္ေပးခဲ့ေသာက႑မ်ား

ယခုႏွစ္တြင္ နိုင္ငံျခား ရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံသူမ်ားအတြက္ ပညာေရးဝန္ေဆာင္မႈက႑ႏွင့္ လက္လီ၊ လက္ကား ေရာင္းခ်ေရး ဝန္ေဆာင္မႈက႑တို႔အတြက္ ရာႏႈန္းျပည့္ နိုင္ငံျခား ရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈမ်ားကို ခြင့္ျပဳေပးခဲ့သည္။ နိုင္ငံျခားရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံသူမ်ားအတြက္ အခြင့္အေရးေပးထားသည့္ ဆြဲေဆာင္မႈမ်ား ပါဝင္ေသာ ကုမၸဏီဥပေဒအသစ္သည္ ၾသဂုတ္ ရက္တြင္ အသက္ဝင္ခဲ့ၿပီးျဖစ္သည္။ 

ပညာေရးဝန္ေဆာင္မႈက႑ကို ရာႏႈန္းျပည့္ နိုင္ငံျခား ရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ခြင့္ေပးခဲ့ၿပီးေနာက္တြင္ စင္ကာပူအေျခစိုက္ ပညာေရးဝန္ေဆာင္မႈလုပ္ငန္းတစ္ခု ဝင္ေရာက္လာခဲ့ၿပီးျဖစ္သည္။ ထို႔ျပင္ လက္လီ၊ လက္ကားေရာင္းခ်ေရး ဝန္ေဆာင္မႈက႑တြင္ ရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံရန္ ဂ်ပန္၊ ကိုရီးယားႏွင့္ ထိုင္းနိုင္ငံမွ ရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံသူမ်ား လာေရာက္ေဆြးေႏြး မႈမ်ားရွိသည္ဟု စီးပြားေရးႏွင့္ ကူးသန္းေရာင္းဝယ္ေရး ဝန္ႀကီးဌာနမွ သိရသည္။

ကမ္းလြန္ေရနံႏွင့္ သဘာဝဓာတ္ေငြ႕လုပ္ကြက္မ်ား စီးပြားျဖစ္ထုတ္လုပ္နိုင္ေၾကာင္း အတည္ျပဳနိုင္ပါက ရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈမ်ား တိုးတက္လာဖြယ္ရွိသည္ဟု ျမန္မာနိုင္ငံရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံမႈေကာ္မရွင္၊ ဥကၠဌဦးေသာင္းထြန္းက ၾသဂုတ္ ၃ဝ တြင္ က်င္းပခဲ့သည့္ ျပည္ေထာင္စုလႊတ္ေတာ္အစည္းအေဝးတြင္ ေျပာၾကားခဲ့သည္။


''လာမယ့္ဘတ္ဂ်က္ႏွစ္မွာေတာ့ ကုမၸဏီဥပေဒရဲ႕ အားသာခ်က္အရလည္း လာနိုင္တယ္။ ပညာေရးလို က႑မ်ိဳးေတြ ဖြင့္ထားေပးတယ္။ လာမည့္သတ္မွတ္လ်ာထားခ်က္ကို ခန့္မွန္းထားသလို ကြၽန္ေတာ္တို႔လုပ္ေနတာေတြလည္း အမ်ားႀကီးရွိပါတယ္။ အာရွေဒသမွာရွိတဲ့ ရင္းႏွီးျမႇုပ္ႏွံသူေတြရဲ႕ စိတ္ဝင္စားမႈကေတာ့ လုံးဝက်သြားတာမရွိဘူး''ဟု ဦးသန္းေအာင္ေက်ာ္က ေျပာသည္။

Monday, September 10, 2018

Soybean Orice

Soybean Prices

logo3.jpg
Get commodity prices from www.commoditybasis.com
Report date: 07 Sep 2018
Soybean Meal 49%





Ports

FOB Amsterdam/Rotterdam



Product Origin:

the Netherlands



Unit:

EUR/MT



From
To
Bid
Ask
Trade
Volume
Sep 2018
Sep 2018

327.05


Okt 2018
Okt 2018

328.04


Nov 2018
Nov 2018

328.08


Dec 2018
Jan 2019

327.32


Jan 2019
Jan 2019

319.26


Soybean Meal 46.5%





Ports

FOB Argentia



Product Origin:

Argentina



Unit:

USD/ST



From
To
Bid
Ask
Trade
Volume
Okt 2018
Okt 2018

-2


Nov 2018
Nov 2018

-1


Dec 2018
Dec 2018

+3


Jan 2019
Jan 2019

+6




Soybean Producers




Country
2014/2015

1.
United States
108,014
2.
Brazil
94,500
3.
Argentina
56,000
4.
China
12,350
5.
India
10,500
6.
Paraguay
8,500
7.
Canada
6,050
8.
Ukraine
3,900
9.
Uruguay
3,400
10.
Bolivia
2,700
Soybeans are the largest of all the oilseeds, when looking at production volumes. Even though soybeans are called oilseeds, they only produce about 20% oil and they are mainly known for their high protein level. With a protein level of between 45-50% soybeans have increased in popularity in recent years. Soybean prices are very much correlated with the amount of protein they provide. Living standards in emerging economies have risen significantly causing the demand for meat to increase. The increased demand for meat has increased the demand for soybeans and consequently soybean prices have been rising in recent years. China has become the world’s largest importer of soybeans, and the economic prosperity of the country correlates directly with soybean prices. In the USA, soybean prices have been influenced heavily by the increased demand from biodiesel.
The US is the biggest producer and exporter of soybeans, followed by Brazil and Argentina. These three countries are very important on the supply side when it comes to soybean price levels. The biggest exporter of soybean products, such as soybean oil and soybean meal, is Argentina. The country exports almost half of all soybean derivative products in the world. Argentina consequently plays a big role in derivative soybean prices.
In recent years soybean production has gone up significantly. The rise in soybean production has several reasons. First of all: the yields of the planted areas have gone up significantly and part of this increase can be attributed to the rise of GMO. GMO soybean varieties are more resistant to pests, which results in less loss of crop. More than 50% of the soybeans in the world are genetically modified, which is a higher percentage than any other crop in the world.
A more important reason for the increase in soybean production is higher soybean prices. Soybean production has risen to well over 300 million metric tons per year worldwide. The United States is expected to harvest 108 million metric tons in 2014/2015, up from 91 million tons the year before. With this, the United States is the biggest producer of soybeans worldwide and produces around a third of the world total production. Brazil is expected to produce a crop this year of 95mmt, and Argentina of 56mmt, ranking second and third. The USDA reports are leading in the market sentiment of where the prices are going.
Country
Percentage of World Production
Percentage of Bean Export
Percentage of Oil Export
Percentage of Meal Export
United States
34%
42%
18%
10%
Brazil
30%
39%
22%
12%
Argentina
18%
7%
45%
46%
China
4%
0%
3%
1%
Paraguay
3%
3%
4%
7%
Brazil produces slightly less than the US but exports about the same amount. Because the countries are located on different sides of the hemisphere, the export seasons do not overlap. This ensures that there is a steady supply of the beans throughout the year. In Brazil soybean exports normally start late February and gain momentum in March. In Argentina this cycle is normally one or two months later. In the United States soybean harvest starts at the end of September. New crop exports start flowing during October. The quality of the soybeans and soybean prices tend to differ in the two regions. In general, Brazilian soybeans tend to have a higher protein levels, resulting in higher soybean prices. Also, Brazil produces Non-GM soybeans which are significantly higher in price than their GM counterpart. Argentina has been struggling with soybean protein levels the last few years, resulting in lower soybean prices.
Exports in both North and South America have gone up significantly in the last decade. The main driver of the increase in exports has been the demand in China. This factor has been the single biggest determinant of higher soybean prices in recent years. Farmers in Brazil have gotten very inventive with their agriculture practices. Furthermore farmers in Brazil always have the possibility to plan corn instead of soybeans. This normally happens if soybean prices are becoming less favorable than corn prices. Brazilian farmers also have the possibility to plant two crops each season. When a farmer decides to harvest their soybeans early, they can plant a quickly maturing Safrinha corn crop right after the soybean harvest.
China is the largest importer of soybeans in the world followed by the European Union. China is responsible for around 60% of worldwide soybean imports, the European Union around 15%. In China almost all soybeans arrive in the port of Dalian. The commodity exchange of China is also located in Dalian, which makes it by far the most important area for soybean price discovery.
Most of the soybeans arriving in Europe will enter through Rotterdam, followed by Hamburg. The two cities are also the locations of the two largest soybean crush facilities in Europe, owned by Archer Daniels Midland Company.
Uses Of Soybeans
Rarely are soybeans used in their uncrushed form. In some cases soybeans are used as food or feed but in general more value can be added to crush the beans. Most soybeans are crushed for the high protein meal and the oil. In almost all cases soybean meal is used for animal feed. The high protein value has been the main driver of soybean demand and higher soybean prices. In a few countries in the world they use soybean meal also for human.
Soybean oil has a variety of uses; the most obvious one being for human consumption in frying oil and sauces. Soybean oil however has also many industrial uses in paint, lubricants or plastics. In recent years the use of soybean oil in biodiesel has also become very popular. In the US, 30% of soybean oil goes into biodiesel, and this number is still growing. Soybean prices have consequently been supported through increased demand for the meal and increased demand for the oil.
Soybean Prices In The United States
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The United States remains the leader in the production of soybeans and sets the benchmark for soybean prices. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) makes monthly estimates about soybean production in the US and the rest of the world. The production figures give guidance to soybean prices around the world. The USDA figures are seen as the most important figures every month and are closely watched by traders.
Soybeans are the second largest crop planted in the United States, after corn. The region in which soybeans grow is similar to the Corn Belt. The states with the largest production of soybeans are Illinois and Iowa.
Illinois is also home to Chicago, which is a very important city for soybean prices, because the largest futures exchange is based there. The Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) is the largest futures exchange in the world and used by companies worldwide to hedge their soybean prices. In recent years the Dalian stock exchange in China has also won in popularity. This exchange however is used for hedging soybean prices more locally.
Soybeans are mainly exported from ports in the US Gulf. When it comes to the physical market this area is very important for soybean prices. Soybeans are transported from the Corn Belt by rail, truck or by barges down the Mississippi river. Important ports in the south include, Houston, New Orleans, South Louisiana and Beaumont. Exporters furthermore have the possibility to ship soybeans from the Atlantic coast or Pacific North West. Normally they will do this when sea vessel freight prices are very high. Ports on the East coast are located closer to Europe so traders will incur lower freight costs. Because exporters compete with the global market they have to stay competitive. This means decreasing costs and offering low soybean prices. Freight tends to be a large part of total soybean prices, so it is a great tool to create a comparative advantage.
Soybean Prices In South America
South America produces more soybeans than any other continent on the planet. Brazil is the largest producer of soybeans after the United States. In the period 2012-2014 the country was furthermore the largest exporter of soybeans. Argentina is the third largest producer of soybeans in the world, but exports a relatively small amount of whole soybeans. Instead Argentina is by far the biggest exporter of soybean oil and soybean meal. The country is responsible for almost half of the world total exports of oil and meal. Two smaller producing countries in South America are Paraguay and Uruguay. The countries are still relatively small in terms of output but have the potential for rapid growth. Estimates for production and acreage figures are provided by Conab as well as the USDA.
Mato Grosso is the main soybean producing area in the world. The area produces over 25% of the soybeans in Brazil. Weather circumstances in Mato Grosso are scrutinized for giving direction to soybean prices. About 50% of all beans produced in Mato Grosso go to China. In Argentina the main producing state is Buenos Aires, followed by Cordoba and Santa Fe. From there beans are predominantly transported to the Rosario area (up-river) where 80% of the crush capacity of the country is located. Rosario is also the most important area for exports and Argentinean soybean price discovery for exports.
In Argentina, 90% of exports of Soybeans and its derivatives goes through the ports of Rosario and San Lorenzo Puerto san Martin (also known as up-river Argentina). The biggest export port in Brazil is Santos, followed by Paranagua and Sao Francisco do Sul. Soybean prices FOB Up-River and FOB Brazil give direction to global physical soybean markets. Because the markets are so liquid there is furthermore a Paranagua paper market as well as a futures exchange. For traders inside Brazil there are also a few locations inland that function as a benchmark for local soybean prices.
Infrastructural problems are the biggest challenge to Brazilian soybean price competitiveness. Exporting soybeans from Mato Grosso to the ports in the south can cost up to $150 per metric ton. Understandably these high costs heavily influence soybean prices, and more specifically, the profits farmers make. Infrastructural problems have resulted in truck queues of 15 miles and vessel waiting times of 60 days in the past.
The Brazil government and private companies are investing money to improve the infrastructure situation. The most ambitious plan is to improve local transport to to the port of Belem in the north. By making the transport to Belem easier this port could grow to become the main export port to China. Exporting soybeans from Belem makes the journey by sea two days shorter compared to the Atlantic route. Soybean price competitiveness for Brazil will go up and China may become an even more important trading partner for Brazil.
While Argentina doesn’t have the infrastructural problems, the country faces other difficulties. While transport is fairly efficient, inflation in the country is more than 25% per year. Soybean prices in the export market are denominated in dollars and have a much more stable value than local currency. Farmers hoard soybeans as a hedge against domestic inflation. Because the demand for silos is much higher than the supply, farmers have been using silo bags to store their soybeans. Silo bags are long plastic bags that can be used for excess storage of products such as corn and soybeans. It is a very cheap way to store excess supply of agricultural products for up to 24 months. Because they are so cheap, costs of this storage is relatively low and it will not eat away too much margin from the price farmers get for their soybeans. Besides inflation the government taxes soybean exports at 35% (Corn at 20% and wheat at 23%). These policies distort soybean prices in the country and the willingness of farmers to export. The policies also discourage investment in agriculture and it is estimated that production is 10-20% below potential.
Because soybean products are important in the area, Brazil and Argentina have their own futures exchanges for soybean price discovery. The Rosario Futures exchange is the Argentinian exchange for the soybeans, the BM&F Bovespa is the Brazilian futures exchange. Local exchanges can be used for hedging by Brazilian and Argentinian traders. For international soybean prices however, traders tend to look more at the CBOT and Dalian.
Soybean Prices In Main Importing Areas
In recent years soybean markets have been very much demand driven. The rapid rise of China on the world stage, has made that the country is responsible for 60% of all soybean imports worldwide. While the country is the largest importer it is responsible for only 4% of worldwide soybean production (or 12.5 million tons). This makes China still the fourth largest producer of the commodity worldwide. Another big importer is the European Union (until 2002 the largest importer). The block of countries is responsible for 15% of world imports. On the demand side, the area that is most important for soybean prices has shifted to the east.
China has invested heavily in crushing facilities in the big ports with the idea to make money out of crushing soybeans. Because of this, the country primarily imports soybeans and less soybean meal and oil. To indicate the importance of soybeans; almost half of all agricultural products imported into China are soybeans.
The European Union used to be the most important importer of soybeans but plays a smaller role on the world stage these days. Most soybeans are imported from North and South America. The EU furthermore buys almost half of all Ukrainian soybeans exported. The largest amount of soybeans arrives in the ports of Rotterdam and Hamburg. These ports are the location of the two largest crushing plants in Europe. These ports function as a benchmark for soybean prices and soybean product prices in Europe. Soybean meal is an important source of protein for animal feed in the EU and has to compete with rapeseed meal and sunflower seed meal. Soybean oil is mainly used for food purposes, for industrial purposes and increasingly for biodiesel.

Soybean prices in China are hedged on the Dalian Commodities Exchange (DCE). The Dalian Commodities exchange is the second largest futures exchange in the world and the second largest soybean futures contract. Increasingly traders around the world are looking at the DCE for soybean prices. In the European market Rotterdam functions as the benchmark for European soybean prices. Rotterdam functions as a transit port for the European hinterland, soybean prices in Europe are normally quoted as a flat price as opposed to a basis price.

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